/ PureScript

Integrate PureScript with your JavaScript application

PureScript is a strongly-typed functional programming language that compiles to JavaScript. It means we can benefit from the type safety not only in new, but also existing applications.

PureScript has a top-notch FFI (Foreign-Function Interface) allowing us to call JavaScript functions from within PureScript. Not only this but we can also use PureScript modules from JavaScript.

Installing PureScript

First, we need to install global dependencies — the PureScript compiler, the package manager and the build tool: yarn global add [email protected] psc-package pulp.

Generating project structure

Pulp, the build tool, allows us to generate a basic project structure by running a single command: pulp --psc-package init.

It will create the src and test directories as well as psc-package.json containing a list of dependencies. Once created, pulp will install PureScript packages to .psc-package directory.

You can now compile and run src/Main.purs by typing pulp --watch run. After modifying the contents of src/Main.purs, pulp will automatically recompile and run the module.

Installing code bundler

Since we'd like to build a JavaScript application that integrates with PureScript, a code bundler will come in handy.

Parcel helps to effortlessly transpile ES6 code, bundle modules and automatically reload the code in the browser with no extra configuration. You can install Parcel with yarn add parcel.

Defining npm script and running the bundler

Once installed, it is often a good practice to add a script to the package.json file so that we can easily run the bundler. We're going to define dev script that will bundle the code and serve the application on port 1234 after running yarn run dev in the terminal.

// package.json
"scripts": {
  "dev": "parcel serve src/index.html"
}

Next, we create src/index.html

<!-- src/index.html -->
<html>
  <head>
    <title>PureScript Application</title>
  </head>

  <body>
    <script src="./index.js"></script>
  </body>
</html>

And src/index.js

// src/index.js
console.log('Hello from JavaScript');

Now, after executing yarn run dev, a very basic JavaScript application is up and running on http://localhost:1234/.

Calling PureScript from JavaScript

Now, the final step. We'd like to execute PureScript code from src/Main.purs in our JavaScript application. We still want yarn run dev to be running in the background.

However, instead of running pulp --watch run and executing the PureScript code, we're going to run pulp --watch build to build the code and skip the execution part.

The PureScript module

Now, when both commands are running in the background, we can have a look at our src/Main.purs module.

module Main where

import Prelude
import Control.Monad.Eff (Eff)
import Control.Monad.Eff.Console (CONSOLE, log)

main :: forall e. Eff (console :: CONSOLE | e) Unit
main = do
  log "Hello from PureScript!"

Essentially, we can tell the module is named Main and it only has a single method called main. It imports a bunch of other modules in order to tell the compiler the main function is effectful and the particular side effect involved is JavaScript console. It also imports the log function which takes a string and prints it in the JavaScript console. The main function doesn't produce any value hence the Unit in the type definition.

Importing the module

Next, after we understood the PureScript module, we can import the compiled output from our JavaScript file.

// src/index.js
const Main = require('../output/Main/index');

console.log('Hello from JavaScript');

Main.main();

After opening the browser window again, we can see both the JavaScript code we wrote by hand and the JavaScript code produced by the PureScript compiler both executed and printed text to the JavaScript console.

Excellent! We just integrated existing JavaScript code with PureScript. Now we're free to write in both languages. We can also gradually introduce PureScript in some areas of our codebase as we learn the language.

Next steps

We learned integrating PureScript code with JavaScript doesn't have to be a difficult task. Parcel and Pulp make it a simple process. Parcel's documentation also explains how to bundle our application for production.

When it comes to learning PureScript, I highly recommend the "PureScript by Example" book by Phil Freeman, the author of the language. It's a fantastic resource for learning the language as well as functional programming concepts in general!

Good luck!