# Functors by example

Running `:i Functor`

in ghci yields the following:

```
class Functor (f :: * -> *) where
fmap :: (a -> b) -> f a -> f b
(<$) :: a -> f b -> f a
```

It also lists available instances of the *Functor* type class:

```
instance Functor (Either a) -- Defined in ‘Data.Either’
instance Functor [] -- Defined in ‘GHC.Base’
instance Functor Maybe -- Defined in ‘GHC.Base’
instance Functor IO -- Defined in ‘GHC.Base’
instance Functor ((->) r) -- Defined in ‘GHC.Base’
instance Functor ((,) a) -- Defined in ‘GHC.Base’
```

## Concrete type signatures

To understand similarities and differences between various instances of the *Functor* type class we will take a look at the type signatures of the `fmap`

and `<$`

functions for `List`

, `Maybe`

and `Either`

types:

```
-- Generic
fmap :: (a -> b) -> f a -> f b
-- List
fmap :: (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b]
-- Maybe
fmap :: (a -> b) -> Maybe a -> Maybe b
-- Either
fmap :: (b -> c) -> Either a b -> Either a c
```

```
-- Generic
(<$) :: a -> f b -> f a
-- List
(<$) :: c -> [a] -> [c]
-- Maybe
(<$) :: c -> Maybe a -> Maybe c
-- Either
(<$) :: c -> Either a b -> Either a c
```

## Using `fmap`

with different types

In order to use `fmap`

we need to define a function we want to work with. After it is defined we will apply the function to some instances of the *Functor* type class:

```
addOne :: Num a => a -> a
addOne a = a + 1
```

```
-- List
fmap addOne [ ] == [ ]
fmap addOne [1] == [2]
fmap addOne [1, 2, 3] == [2, 3, 4]
```

```
-- Maybe
fmap addOne (Nothing) == Nothing
fmap addOne (Just 2) == Just 3
```

```
-- Either
fmap addOne (Left 0) == Left 0
fmap addOne (Right 2) == Right 3
```

Interactive Examples:

## Using `<$`

with different types

`<$`

swaps values in the instance of the *Functor* typeclass and is originally defined as `fmap . const`

.

```
-- List
1 <$ [ ] == [ ]
1 <$ [2] == [1]
1 <$ [1,2,3] == [1,1,1]
```

```
-- Maybe
1 <$ (Nothing) == Nothing
1 <$ (Just 2) == Just 1
```

```
-- Either
1 <$ (Left 0) == Left 0
1 <$ (Right 2) == Right 1
```

Interactive Examples:

It's not as bad as it looks, or is it? Let me know on twitter - @maciejsmolinski.

In the next post you will learn in a similar way about Applicatives.